Republic of Singapore
Singapore

Population: 5535000
Area of jurisdiction: 719 km2

Commitments

  Community Government
Absolute base year GHG reduction target: n/a n/a
Baseline scenario (BAU) GHG reduction target: 7% by 2020 (2005) n/a
Fixed-level GHG reduction target: n/a n/a
Carbon intensity reduction target: 36% by 2030 (2005) n/a
Renewable energy target: n/a 5% by 2020
Energy efficiency target: 35% by 2030 (2005) n/a
Government and Community: CO2(e) targets

Performance

Community GHG Emissions
Total ( n/a ):  0 tCO2e
Government GHG Emissions
Total ( 2010 ):  0 tCO2e

Mitigation actions

Building Partnerships for Climate Action
Singapore’s climate change strategy is shaped by an ongoing consultative and inclusive engagement with partners from the people, public and private sectors. For example, the government undertook a public consultation exercise in early 2015 to solicit views from citizens on Singapore’s plans to reduce emissions and promote green growth. In partnership with these stakeholders, the government has also implemented various outreach and educational efforts to raise awareness and promote action to address climate change. These include: - Incorporating climate change into the educational curriculum of subjects such as geography and the sciences, - Organising national and community campaigns such as the Clean & Green Singapore and 10% Energy Challenge to encourage Singaporeans to adopt climate-friendly habits and lifestyles, - Working with businesses, grassroots organisations and civic society groups to co-create outreach programmes in areas such as energy efficiency, - Providing funding and building capacity in such groups to carry out climate-change outreach initiatives, and - Crowdsourcing solutions to environmental problems from the public, for example by organising the Clean and Green Hackathon to bring together the ICT community to work on new, collaborative ideas to improve Singapore’s energy efficiency. Such efforts have enabled a ground-up movement on climate change comprising individuals, businesses, NGOs and community groups to flourish. Start year  
Sector  
Type Public Participation/Stakeholder engagement
Status In progress
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Harnessing Green Growth Opportunities
Singapore has identified the clean energy industry as a strategic growth area and implemented a comprehensive blueprint to develop the industry. It has secured several key investments in high-value manufacturing, engineering, biofuels, R&D and regional headquarters activities. The most notable is the growing cluster of companies manufacturing and conducting R&D on solar technologies. More than S$665 million has been invested in R&D for energy solutions since 2005. The innovations being developed in Singapore not only help the city-state address its own energy and climate change challenges, but also other cities facing similar issues. Singapore positions itself as a “living laboratory” to test, pilot, and commercialise innovative solutions. Test-bedding projects already underway include the CleanTech Park, Intelligent Energy System Pilot, Punggol Eco-Town, Pulau Ubin Micro-Grid, and Electric Vehicle Test Bed. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Green Shipping
As a major seaport, Singapore is committed to ensure that the shipping industry develops in an environmentally-responsible and sustainable manner. In 2011, a $100 million Maritime Singapore Green Initiative was launched to provide incentives to companies that adopt clean and green shipping practices over and above the minimum required by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Conventions. Under the Green Ship Programme, owners of Singapore-flagged ships are encouraged to reduce carbon dioxide and sulphur oxides emissions by adopting energy-efficient ship designs or approved sulphur oxides scrubber technologies that exceed the IMO’s requirements. More than 170 Singapore-flagged ships have qualified for this Programme. More than 2,600 vessel calls have enjoyed lower port duties under the Green Port Programme, which encourages oceangoing ships calling at the Port of Singapore to reduce the emissions of pollutants. About 15 companies and 50 Singapore-flagged ships have participated in the Green Technology Programme, which provides grants to encourage local maritime companies to develop and adopt green technologies to reduce emissions. Start year  
Sector Transport
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Reducing Emissions from Waste and Wastewater Treatment
Singapore‘s overall waste management strategy is to reduce waste through the 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle). There are plans to increase its recycling rate from 60% in 2014 to 70% by 2030. The remaining waste is incinerated in waste-to-energy plants which contribute about 2–3% of the electricity generated in Singapore. The voluntary Singapore Packaging Agreement (SPA) is an important part of the city-state's efforts to reduce packaging waste. The government has made it mandatory for large commercial premises to report waste data and submit waste reduction plans. A 3R Fund provide funding support for waste reduction and recycling projects with a focus on waste streams with low recycling rates. The treatment of used water and the treatment of municipal solid waste have traditionally been independent processes. Singapore is siting a new Integrated Waste Management Facility (IWMF) and Water Reclamation Plant (WRP) together to optimise land use and realise process synergies in the water-energy-waste nexus. Start year  
Sector Waste
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Improving Energy Performance Standards of Household Appliances and Promoting Energy Efficiency to Households
The households sector accounts for about 16% of the total electricity consumption in Singapore. To improve energy efficiency in homes, Singapore implemented the Mandatory Energy Labelling Scheme (MELS) for household appliances in 2008. To date, energy labelling has been mandated for air-conditioners, refrigerators, clothes dryers, and televisions. Regulations on Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) were introduced for refrigerators and air conditioners in 2011, and raised in 2013. MEPS remove the most inefficient models that fall short of specified minimum energy efficiency levels from the market, which help to minimise lifecycle cost for consumers. The 10% Energy Challenge campaign launched in 2008 encourages households to reduce their energy use by 10% or more by practising simple energy-saving habits. Initiatives include media publicity, community outreach events, and a Voluntary Agreement with retailers and suppliers to promote energy efficient home appliances. Information and tools to help households save energy is also made available online. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Shifting Travel Demand to Low-Emission Modes and Reducing Vehicular Emissions
Singapore aims to reduce transport emissions by encouraging greater use of public transport and reducing vehicular emissions. Under the Land Transport Master Plan 2013, Singapore targets to achieve a 75% public transport modal share during both the morning and evening peak hours by 2030. To encourage the use of public transport, the length of the rail network will be increased from 178km in 2012 to 360km by 2030. About 100 more Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) stations will be built. 8 in 10 households will be within a 10-minute walk of a train station by 2030. The capacity of the public bus fleet will also increase by 35% from 2012 to 2017. Singapore also aims to reduce reliance on private transport. Ownership and usage of private cars are being managed through various fees and taxes. Prospective car owners are required to bid and pay for limited Certificates of Entitlement controlled in accordance with the sustainable vehicle population growth rate. Usage of cars is managed using Electronic Road Pricing, where vehicles have to pay a charge for entering congested roads during specific periods. The Carbon Emissions-based Vehicle Scheme, introduced in 2013, gives a rebate to low-emission cars and taxis, and imposes a surcharge on high emission cars and taxis. Under the Fuel Economy Labelling Scheme, all cars and light goods vehicles that are displayed for sale must be affixed with a fuel economy label that provides information on their fuel consumption. Singapore is encouraging more car-sharing schemes and allocating parking spaces for car-sharing. Test-bedding of electric vehicles (EVs) was also started in 2011 to enable the government to gain a deeper understanding of the operating models and support required for EVs to succeed on a larger scale in Singapore. Walking and cycling are promoted as ways to reduce carbon footprint. Under the Walk2Ride programme, more than 200 km of sheltered walkways will connect neighbourhood facilities and amenities by 2018. Standards and designs of walkways will also be reviewed to contribute to better walkability. The National Cycling Plan will expand our island-wide cycling paths from 230 km today to over 700 km by 2030. There are also plans to build more bicycle lots at MRT stations and public housing developments. Start year  
Sector Transport
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Greening Buildings
The Singapore government has implemented a Green Building Masterplan and launched the Green Mark Scheme – a rating scheme to evaluate buildings for their environmental impact and performance. Singapore has a target of greening 80% of our building stock by 2030. Developers and owners of new buildings or existing buildings undergoing major retrofitting works with a gross floor area of more than 2,000m2 are required to achieve minimum Green Mark standards. Existing office, hotel and retail buildings are required to submit building information and energy consumption data annually for energy benchmarking purposes. In addition, commercial buildings with gross floor area of more than 15,000m2 are required to achieve minimum Green Mark standards when a cooling system is installed or retrofitted, as well as carry out three-yearly energy audit on building cooling systems. The regulations are complemented with incentives and financing schemes. To promote sustainable building practices in Southeast Asia, Singapore has been working closely with the UN Environment Programme Sustainable Building and Climate Initiative. A Centre for Sustainable Buildings has been established to assist countries in the region with sustainable building solutions. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Improving Industrial Energy Efficiency
Industry is the largest energy-consuming sector in Singapore. Improving industrial energy efficiency is thus a key part of Singapore's efforts to reduce emissions. The Energy Conservation Act was introduced in April 2013 to require large industrial users of energy to appoint an energy manager, monitor and report their energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, and submit plans for energy efficiency improvement to the relevant government authorities. More than S$100 million has also been committed to encourage the industry to adopt energy efficient technologies through grants, private sector financing schemes and tax incentives. Examples include the Grant for Energy Efficiency Technologies (GREET) which helps companies reduce the initial capital outlay for energy efficiency investments, and the Energy Efficiency Improvement Assistance Scheme (EASe) which provides support for the conduct of energy assessments to identify potential areas for energy efficiency improvements. To build up local capabilities for energy efficiency, the government launched the Energy Efficiency National Partnership (EENP) programme to support companies’ energy efficiency efforts, and help them to be more aware about ideas, technologies, practices, standards and case studies regarding energy efficiency. The Energy Services Companies (ESCOs) Accreditation Scheme was created to encourage and enhance the growth of ESCOs. The scheme establishes a nationally recognised Register of Accredited ESCOs to help companies identify and realise opportunities to improve energy efficiency. The Singapore Certified Energy Manager (SCEM) Programme was initiated to help engineering professionals develop the technical skills and competencies needed to manage energy use of their buildings and operations. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Promoting climate change awareness and action
The government's efforts to raise public awareness and promote action on climate change are complemented by businesses, organisations and youth groups that have initiated similar programmes. In schools, climate change is discussed in subjects such as general paper, economics, geography and the sciences. School excursions are organised to visit power stations, incineration plants, meteorological stations and green buildings. The annual Clean & Green Singapore campaign encourages Singaporeans to care for and protect the environment by adopting environmental friendly lifestyles. The National Environment Agency's 10% Energy Challenge programme prompts Singaporeans to cut back on their energy consumption and adopt energy-efficient practices. Start year  
Sector  
Type Education/Awareness Raising
Status In progress
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Reducing emissions from waste and water
Singapore’s waste management strategy aims to reduce emissions from waste through the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle), and by incinerating the remaining refuse in waste-to-energy plants. Incineration is preferable to land filling, since the direct burial of waste produces methane, a greenhouse gas. We aim to improve our recycling rate of 61% in 2013 to 70% by 2030. We also seek to reduce direct methane emissions from wastewater sludge through incineration. Desalinated water is one of Singapore's water supply sources and we have been investing in R&D to improve the energy efficiency of the desalination process. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File download
Removing energy inefficient appliance models and enhancing consumer awareness
The Mandatory Energy Labelling Scheme (MELS) was introduced in 2008 to help households make more informed decisions when purchasing electrical appliances. MELS allows consumers to compare the energy efficiency performance and calculate lifecycle costs of different product models. The Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) was implemented in 2011 to prohibit the sale of the most energy inefficient appliance models. The MEPS scheme covers household refrigerators, air-conditioners and clothes dryers, and will be extended to other household appliances in future. The minimum efficiency standards for air-conditioners and refrigerators will be were further tightened in 2013. Start year 2008
Sector Residential
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Making public transport the choice mode of travel
Singapore aims to encourage 75% of trips during both the morning and evening peak hours to be made by public transport by 2030. This will help to reduce emissions as public transport is the most energy efficient mode of travel. The capacity of the rail network will be increased from 182km in 2013 to 360km by 2030, and the public bus fleet will be increased by 20%, equivalent to 800 new buses, over the next 5 years from 2013. To curb emissions from private vehicles, Singapore has a stringent vehicle ownership systems, and a pay-as-you-use charge on vehicles driving through congested areas. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Improve fuel economy and reduce emissions from motorized vehicles
Singapore introduced a Fuel Economy Labelling Scheme in 2003 to raise awareness of fuel efficiency in cars and to encourage motor traders to bring in more fuel-efficient vehicles. In 2013, the Carbon Emissions-based Vehicle (CEV) scheme was introduced. Under the CEVS, all new and imported used cars and taxis will be banded into categories based on their CO2/km performance data. Low-emission cars will be given incentives, while cars on the other end of the spectrum will incur a penalty in the form of a registration surcharge. This will encourage more consumers and taxi companies to choose lower-emission vehicle models. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File download
Energy efficiency and retrofit measures for buildings
The Green Mark Scheme was launched to encourage developers and owners to build and maintain greener buildings. Green Mark standards require buildings undergoing major retrofitting works to achieve a 28% energy efficiency improvement from 2005 building codes. From 2013, the Building Control Act requires all existing buildings with a gross floor area of 15,000 m² or more to achieve the minimum Green Mark standard when they install or replace a chiller system. Several incentive schemes were also introduced for existing buildings to improve energy efficiency. Singapore has a target of greening 80% of our building stock by 2030. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File download
Energy efficiency improvements for the industrial sector
The Singapore government is facilitating energy efficient investments by helping companies identify commercially viable energy efficiency improvements and helping to defray upfront costs through co-funding. We are considering innovative ways to encourage energy efficiency improvements, including the Energy Performance Contracting model. The Energy Conservation Act which came into force in April 2013 mandates large users of energy to appoint an energy manager, monitor and report their energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, and submit plans for energy efficiency improvement. The government also launched the Energy Efficiency National Partnership programme, a voluntary partnership programme that supports companies’ energy efficiency efforts. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Increasing adoption of solar energy
Among the alternative energy options available, solar energy offers the most promising opportunity for Singapore. We expect solar energy to be economically comparable to electricity derived from fossil fuels as the cost of solar technology decreases. Active investment in R&D to improve efficiency and lower costs is currently being undertaken. The Economic Development Board has launched the SolarNova Programme to accelerate local solar deployment through promoting and aggregating solar demand across government agencies, which will also create new opportunities for Singapore-based companies in the industry. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Fuel mix switch
Since 2000, Singapore has increased the percentage of natural gas used in electricity generation from 19% to 80%. By so doing, we have cut the amount of carbon we release into the atmosphere. In order to diversify our supply of natural gas and take advantage of global gas markets, Singapore has buillt a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal on Jurong Island. Start year 2000
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File download

Adaptation actions

Enhancing Food Security
As a country that imports over 90% of its food supply, Singapore is vulnerable to fluctuations in food supply and prices. The Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority (AVA) ensures that Singapore maintains a resilient supply of safe food by diversifying Singapore's overseas food sources while at the same time increasing local food production. Singapore has adopted contract farming to better control the supply and quality of food, as well as obtain the first right of purchase in times of supply shortages. One example of this approach is Singapore's investment in a Food Zone in Jilin, China. Separately, AVA has helped local farms to increase productivity by adopting relevant advanced farming technologies as well as enhancing the farmers' know-how and capability in agricultural R&D. This is complemented by efforts to reduce food waste. There are also programmes to educate food manufacturers, retailers, food importers, food producers, and other stakeholders along the food supply chain on waste reduction and recycling. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Ensuring Cooler Built Environment and Infrastructure Resilience
The government is studying the effects of rising temperature in a highly urbanised environment like Singapore’s, and identifying measures to ameliorate these effects. In terms of infrastructure resilience, Singapore’s Building Control Act requires buildings to undergo periodic structural inspections to ensure structural resiliency. To protect critical transport infrastructure from flood risks, flood barriers have been installed at subway stations that may potentially be affected. For energy and telecommunication services, private operators are required to meet performance standards and ensure network resilience, including through monitoring and maintenance. Start year  
Sector  
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
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Strengthening Resilience in Public Health
The National Environment Agency is collaborating with the Ministry of Health to study the relationship between climatic factors – such as temperature, humidity and rainfall – and public health risks such as dengue fever, as well as heat disorders and respiratory illnesses. They are also identifying measures to manage the effects of such risks. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Safeguarding our Biodiversity and Greenery
To safeguard Singapore’s biodiversity against the potential impacts of climate change such as changing rainfall patterns, higher average temperatures and rising sea levels, work to protect existing species, increase connectivity of various green areas across Singapore, and enhance the resilience of ecosystems is underway. This includes measures to restore forest and mangrove areas, diversify plant species, intensify planting and increase connectivity between green areas. Enriching Singapore’s urban biodiversity and extensive greenery is also part of the national vision for a “City in a Garden”. Extensive roadside tree planting contributes to moderating temperatures in the heart of the city. Over 300 parks and a network of park connectors provide relief from the hot urban tropical climate. Large freshwater bodies surrounded by forested catchments help to ameliorate the urban island heat effect and conserve Singapore's rich natural heritage of flora and fauna. Start year  
Sector Terrestrial ecosystems and ecological infrastructure
Type Assessment/Research
Status In progress
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Protecting our Coast, Addressing Flood Risks and Managing our Water Resources
Work is in progress to enhance resilience against coastal erosion and inundation associated with rising sea levels coupled with short-lived, extreme meteorological events. For instance, since 2011, the finished level for new land reclamation projects has been raised from 3 metres to 4 metres above sea level. This is effectively about 2 metres above the highest recorded tide level. The government has commissioned a Risk Map Study to identify the specific coastal areas at risk of inundation and the potential damage associated. The results will complement a Coastal Adaptation Study to develop long-term coastal protection strategies for Singapore. In view of greater weather uncertainties and urbanisation, the government has revamped its stormwater management approach to enhance flood protection for Singapore. Minimum platform level for developments have been raised to further safeguard against the longer-term effects of higher sea level and rainfall intensity. In 2011, design standards for new drains were raised to cater for more intense extreme rainfall events. Developers/owners of land size 0.2 hectares or more are also required to implement measures to slow down surface runoff and reduce the peak flow of stormwater into the public drainage system by implementing on-site detention measures such as green roofs, rain gardens, and detention tanks. Water resource management is another key priority. An increase in weather variability may bring more frequent or more severe droughts that threaten the reliability of Singapore's water supply. To ensure a sustainable water supply for Singapore’s population and industry, a robust and diversified water supply is established through the “Four National Taps”, namely, local catchment water, imported water, NEWater and desalinated water. In particular, NEWater and desalinated water are less dependent on rainfall and are thus more resilient against dry weather. By 2060, Singapore plans to increase the current NEWater and desalination capacities so that NEWater and desalinated water meet up to 55% and 25% of our future water demand respectively. Start year  
Sector  
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
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Optimal Land Use Planning and Urban Design
Optimal land use planning and urban design can help create cooler and more comfortable environment for people, counteracting some of the effects of rising temperatures. Singapore is studying our urban temperature profile and the energy consumption of buildings to understand how temperature increase and wind changes will affect us. The Urban Redevelopment Authority is working on a Climatic Mapping Study to understand how the built environment and urban greenery could affect micro-climatic conditions. The study will also identify hot spots and cooler areas in Singapore, and provide recommendations on the planning and design of public spaces and buildings. Start year  
Sector  
Type Assessment/Research
Status In progress
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Studying the Impact on Public Health
Singapore is situated in a region where vector-borne diseases, such as dengue, are endemic. There may be a link between rising temperatures and the incidence of such diseases. Frequent and severe episodes of warm weather could also lead to increased occurrences of heat stress and discomfort. The National Environment Agency is collaborating with the Ministry of Health to study the relationship between climatic factors and public health risks such as dengue fever, and heat disorders and respiratory diseases. Start year  
Sector Human health
Type Assessment/Research
Status In progress
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Expanding Green Spaces
Extensive roadside tree planting has contributed to the relatively cooler temperatures in the heart of the city. Over 300 parks and the network of green park connectors provide relief from the hot urban tropical climate. Water demand will also be lowered when temperatures are kept lower. In our continued endeavour to keep Singapore green, tree management and maintenance will be further enhanced. The current health checks on Singapore's trees will be conducted more thoroughly and frequently, while more suitable species which are less vulnerable to storms and strong winds will be planted along the streets. Start year  
Sector Terrestrial Ecosystems
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Improving Drainage, and Other Flood Prevention Measures
Singapore has invested S$2 billion into our drainage infrastructure over the last 30 years. As a result, flood-prone areas have been reduced from 3,200ha in the 1970s to 49ha as of 2012. Our national water agency, PUB, continues to implement drainage improvement programmes to strengthen Singapore's flood resilience. A 2011 review of drainage design and flood protection measures by an expert panel recommended additional measures. PUB also announced in 2013 that it is adopting a holistic "source-pathway-receptor" approach to mitigate and manage flood risks. This includes strengthening the drainage infrastructure and introducing measures to better control stormwater at source. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File download
Water Resources Management
Climate change could affect Singapore's water supply as increasing rainfall intensity could lead to flooding, while dry weather will reduce the reliability of our water supply. Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has developed a diversified and robust water supply through the Four National Taps (local catchment water, imported water from Malaysia, NEWater and desalinated water) to ensure a sustainable water supply. NEWater and desalinated water is expected to meet about 70% of Singapore’s water demand by 2030, and up to 80% by 2060. Water conservation, through public outreach and other measures, is also an important complementary strategy to ensure Singapore's long-term water sustainability. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File download
Coastal Protection
In anticipation of rising sea levels in the future, the minimum reclamation levels for newly reclaimed land have been raised by 1m (to 2.25m) from the previous 1.25m. The Singapore Government has also embarked on a Coastal Adaptation Study to develop long term coastal protection strategies for Singapore. Start year 2011
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File download
Knowledge and Expertise in Climate Science
Singapore is developing clusters in research areas to study the different aspects of climate change-related impact and vulnerabilities. The Centre for Climate Research Singapore (CCRS) was established in 2013 to build up local capability in climate science and climate modelling. CCRS will tap on the relevant experts and institutions. This will build up Singapore's expertise in climate science, to help augment national preparedness for climate change and inform policy decisions. Start year  
Sector  
Type Assessment/Research
Status In progress
File download
National Climate Change Study
The First National Climate Change Study was conducted in 2007 to examine the long-term effects of climate change on Singapore. The findings of the study showed that the mean sea level around Singapore could rise by up to 0.65m and temperatures could increase by up to 4.2°C in 2100. A second National Climate Change Study has been commissioned to update the projected impact on Singapore based on the findings of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Start year 2007
Sector  
Type Assessment/Research
Status In progress
File download