eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality
South Africa

Population: 3442361
Area of jurisdiction: 2291 km2

Commitments

  Community Government
Absolute base year GHG reduction target: n/a 33% by 2030 (2005)
Baseline scenario (BAU) GHG reduction target: n/a n/a
Fixed-level GHG reduction target: n/a n/a
Carbon intensity reduction target: n/a n/a
Renewable energy target: n/a n/a
Energy efficiency target: n/a n/a
Government and Community: CO2(e) targets

Performance

Community GHG Emissions
Total ( n/a ):  0 tCO2e
Government GHG Emissions
Total ( 2014 ):  0 tCO2e

Mitigation actions

Small Scale Biodigestor
This project was undertaken to pilot the use of biodegisters in schools/farms in the eThekwini Municipal Area. The objectives are: 1. Construction of a single biodigester in a school/farm in eThekwini and; 2. Monitoring and evaluation of the digester as a appropriate energy source for certain applications. Start year  
Sector Commercial
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File  
METIS
The purpose of the project is to establish an enabling policy frameworktowards sustainable energy self-reliance by 2050 for eThekwini Municipality. This will be done through the development of Sustainable Energy Sector Development Plan that will outline the transition from nearly full reliance on imported energy to a more decentralised energy system. This will result in the establishement of a vibrant sustainable energy sector within the local economy. This will contribute substantially to advancing the green economy in the municipality. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File  
Durban Climate Change Strategy
eThekwini Municipality developed the Durban Climate Change Strategy (DCCS), focused on adaptation and mitigation, through an inclusive and participatory process. The development of the DCCS acknowledged that we live in a world with finite and diminishing natural resources, such that Durban needs to convert to a low carbon, green economy that prioritises the sustainable use of ecosystem services whilst still overcoming the development challenges faced by the majority of Durban residents. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File  
EOS
Most PV installations in the city are linked to the electrical grid and require approval by the Electricity Unit. With large scale installation of PV, there are also potential impacts on revenue generation from electricity sales and significant potential for localised job creation. The primary aims of this project are 1. provide opoprtunities for learning about PV installations for municipal officials and the public by installing 500kWp of PV on municipal buildings; and 2. showcase the eThekwini Municipality in leading by example in applying renewable energy technologies. Start year  
Sector Commercial
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File  
Durban Solar Map
The primary purpose of the Durban Solar Map is to advance the uptake of decentralised Solar PV installation by removing the barrier of 'lack of access to Renewable Energy data' through the development of a web-based 'Solar Map' for the eThekwini Municipality Area (Durban). Start year  
Sector  
Type Education/Awareness Raising
Status Completed
File  
Cycling Programme - Lane expansion
eThekwini initiated a cycling lan network within the CBD in 2011, totaling more than 30km of cycling lanes. A process is underway, with the eThekwini Transport Authority, to expand the Kms of cycling lanes in other centres within eThekwini Municipality. Start year  
Sector Transport
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File  
Staff Cycling Programme
The eThekwini established a staff bicycle programme that aims to entice eThekwini staff to utilise bicycle for travelling for relevant Municipal business. The bicycles that are utilised were donated to the eThekwini Municipality by UNIDO. Currently, the number of bicycle stations at larger municipal buildings are being expanded. Start year  
Sector Transport
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File  
Shisa Solar Programme
The aim of the project is for the eThekwini Municipality to promote the uptake of energy efficient hot water technologies in the middle and upper residential areas. The programme aims to make it easier for households to accessinformation about SWHs and reputable installers, while beenfiting from an additional Shisa Solar discount. Start year  
Sector  
Type Education/Awareness Raising
Status In progress
File  
Internal Energy Management Program (IEMP)
Implementation of a holistic approach to energy management in municipal infrastructure. The programme includes the development of an internal energy management policy and various energy efficiency interventions in municipal infrastructure and various smaller projects that link to this broader policy. Start year  
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File  
Energy Efficiency Demand Side Management (EEDSM)
Over the past five years eThekwini Municipality has participated in the Department of Energy Municipal Energy Efficiency and Demand Side Management (EEDSM) program. The EEDSM program is a grant fund disbursed the municipalities to implement energy efficient lighting retrofits within municipal Infrastructure. In eThekwini, interventions were implemented in traffic lights, municipal Buildings and street lights. Start year  
Sector  
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File  
The GEOSUN project
The GEOSUN project began in 2012, when the City of Le Port and eThekwini began discussing a project to better understand the solar resource potential of their respective regions. The solar resources of eThekwini differ greatly over very small spatial increments due to close proximity to the coastal and the nature of the terrain. This means that satellite models are often reasonably inaccurate for eThekwini. The uncertainty poses a high risk to developer of developing a project in the region which is often a deterrent for solar developers looking to invest in eThekwini. GEOSUN was designed to address this issue and improve the quality of radiometric data for the eThekwini region. Start year 2012
Sector  
Type  
Status In progress
File download
Fluid Bed reactor
Operation of the fluid bed reactor and generation of electricity at Kwamashu waste water treatment works. Steam to electricity, residual gas from turbine to heat digester and ash from incineration to be investigated for building purposes. Capacity: 1.3MWhp Start year 2013
Sector Other Emissions
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File download
WWTW methane to Electricity
Biogass power generation and sludge management solutions at selected waste waste treatment works. Exhaust heat will be used to heat digesters. Capacity: 400kWhp Start year 2013
Sector Other Emissions
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File download
Mini Hydros
Installation of two mini hydro electric turbines at the inlet at various reservoirs in the northern aqueduct. This will also reduce pressure, which would have to be done by a PRB. combined capacity of 380kWhp for the two sites Start year 2012
Sector Other Emissions
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File download
Western Aqueduct Hydro
Installation of Hydro electric power generation turbines at two separate points on the new aqueduct bulk water supply pipeline. Will also reduce pressure, which would normally have to be done by a PRB. Starting capacity 2MWhp, final capacity 6 MWhp. Start year 2010
Sector Other Emissions
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File download
Staff Bicycle Programme
The eThekwini Municipal Staff Bicycle project is designed to operate as bike share system. The intention is for the bicycles to be deployed and operated as pool vehicles as part of City Fleet . The bicycles would be available to councillors and eThekwini staff, provided they have signed a safety and liability contract and attended training (if necessary) . The bicycles are intended to be used for trips to and between meetings in the CBD and return at the end of their journey. The bicycles were donated to the Municipality during COP17 by UNIDO. Start year 2012
Sector Transport
Type Public Participation/Stakeholder engagement
Status In progress
File download
Residential Energy Efficiency Programme
The residential energy efficiency programme will take on a similar format to that of the existing Shisa Solar programme, this will allow for lessons learnt to be brought through to the Residential energy efficiency programme. The primary aim of the residential energy efficiency programme will be to assist residents of the eThekwini municipality to undertake energy efficient measures in their own homes. This programme will assist in making the transition to a more energy efficient lifestyle easier for the consumer by creating an accredited repository of reliable service providers. Technologies to be promoted:• Solar Photovoltaic installations • Bio digester installations • Rain water harvesting Start year 2013
Sector Residential
Type Education/Awareness Raising
Status In progress
File download
Ocean Current Energy Demonstration Project
The eThekwini Municipality is assisting HAE in piloting a 1MW demonstration project off the eThekwini coast which would harness the power of the Agulhas current. Start year 2012
Sector Other Emissions
Type Assessment/Research
Status In progress
File download
Durban Climate Change Strategy
The aim of the Durban Climate Change Strategy- is to provide guidance for the city as a whole, to mitigate against and adapt to climate change. The strategy will need to be developed, and ultimately implemented by all sectors of Durban’s community Start year 2013
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File download
Durban Solar Cities
The project promotes PV installations at domestic and commercial scale by: developing a strategy for Solar City; making Solar power more affordable; updating rules and regulations; improving local grid policies and processes; educating and empowering potential customers and leading by example with installations on municipal properties. Start year 2013
Sector  
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File download
Solar Map (Reunion Partnership)
Create solar raditation metering network for eThekwini and surrounds for accurate solar mapping and developing a solar forecasting model Start year 2012
Sector  
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File download
Wind Repowering
Pilot 300kW wind project within eThekwini to increase the knowledge around localised environmental impacts and impacts on grid stability Start year 2010
Sector Other Emissions
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File download
Solar City Framework
  Start year 2012
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File  
Community Renewable Energy Projects
Location: Durban Market (Clairwood), Alice Street Bus Deport, Thusong Centre, Claremont Taxi Rank Wards Budget: R 400,000; R185,000; R685,000 & R689,000 respectively In the Durban Market a high energy lighting system was replaced with a low energy system resulting in for a 38 kWh reduction in energy consumption; the Alice Street Bus Depot and Thusong Centre involved the installation of a solar PV unit and a wind turbine at each centre to provide 31 and 100 kWh, respectively, of renewable energy daily; the Claremont Taxi Rank involved the installation of a solar PV unit to provide 23kwh of renewable energy daily for the operation of the taxi rank. Start year 2011
Sector Buildings
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File  
EThekwini Water & Sanitation (EWS) Customer Service Centre
Minimise energy consumption, conserve water and harvest phosphates (a diminishing resource) from urine. In the new EWS building, ground water from below the parking basement floor, rainwater from the roof and condensate from the air conditioning units is collected in rainwater tanks and used for toilet flushing and to water plants; the plants in time will form a green canopy over the pergola structure, shading the public piazza and reducing heat load at windows, lessening power demand for mechanical cooling, and making it possible to install large areas of glazing to provide the natural lighting . Urine is collected from waterless urinals & `no-mix’ WC’s, stored and processed to extract phosphates. Start year 2011
Sector Buildings
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File  
COP 17/CMP 7 Event Greening Programme
The budget for this is R5.8 million. The climate change problem that is being addressed includes climate change awareness, resource and energy efficiency and converting Durban to a climate smart event destination. This programme aims to reduce the ecological impact associated with hosting the COP17/CMP7 event. The core focus areas are carbon-neutrality, resource- and energy efficiency, ecological footprinting, the production of event greening guidelines and an awareness campaign around responsible tourism approaches. It has also provided a platform that for the development of the CEBA concept. These interventions will have a legacy value at the local, national and international level. Start year 2011
Sector Other Emissions
Type Education/Awareness Raising
Status In progress
File  
South Durban Basin Biodiversity and Greening Programme
The South Durban Basin is environmentally degraded, experiencing air pollution, waste disposal problems and the loss of important natural resources. This situation has undermined the quality of life of residential communities in the area. It has also negatively impacted on the competitiveness of the business environment. The close interface between residential and industrial activities in the area has also created tensions between residential communities, local government and industry regarding future development in the area. These challenges are likely to be exacerbated by climate change impacts. The project was aimed at encouraging biodiversity at school level by upgrading green areas around the school using indigenous plants, implementing a ‘food forest’ concept where a permaculture garden was developed and rainwater harvesting tanks erected. Start year 2011
Sector Waste
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File  
South Durban Basin Recycling Pilot Project
The key climate change challenge is to reduce waste in order to contribute to clean and healthy environment and to raise awareness of the importance of recycling, the effects pollution has on the environment and why all people in the world should not litter. The project seeks to reduce the amount of recyclable waste that is going to landfill sites and to educate the public about the value of recycling through children at schools. Start year 2010
Sector Waste
Type Assessment/Research
Status In progress
File  
Non-Revenue Water Reduction - Water Pressure Management Programme
The budget for this programme is R20 million per annum. The eThekwini area is water stressed and the assurance of supply has dropped from the desirable level of 1:100 to 1:16. Approximately 20% of electrical energy consumed is related to the treatment and distribution of water. Efficiencies gained in this area thus have a direct impact on kilowatts consumed and the emission of green house gasses. This programme involves the installation of new pressure management devices, the optimisation of the setting on existing valves and the optimisation of existing pressure reducing valves using time or flow control. A recent innovation is the use of remote critical point sensing to control the pressures (i20). Start year 2011
Sector Other Emissions
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File  
Durban Landfill Gas-to-Electricity Project
Capital: R 110 m, Operating: R 10 m per annum. Landfills are substantial producers of Green House Gases (methane & carbon dioxide). This project is currently producing 7,5 MWhrs of electricity ( 6,5 at Bisasar & 1 at Mariannhill). Both vertical and horizontal wells are drilled into the existing waste. Landfill gas is extracted and piped to the generation compound, where the raw gas is fed as a fuel into spark ignition engines. This drives generators to produce electricity that is fed into the local grid, thus reducing GHG emissions by some 20 000 tons per month. Start year 2004
Sector  
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File  
Project Title: Wonderbag™ Residential Cooking Efficiency Programme
The Wonderbag™ is a heat-retention/insulation cooker. The eThekwini Municipality is currently piloting 3500 Wonderbags™ in the Chesterville area, with a view to a large scale roll-out throughout the city. The Wonderbag™ saves approximately 0.5 tonnes of carbon per year if it is used 2 or 3 times a week. The Wonderbag™ heat-retention cooker is South Africa\'s first programmatic (PoA) CDM project being registered by the UNFCCC, and one of the first in Africa. The resultant revenue will ensure the project\'s commercial sustainability by subsidising the price at which the bags are sold. It will also be used to support communities of Wonderbag™ users to achieve \"green\" lifestyles. Start year 2011
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File  
Wind Resource Map for eThekwini Municipality
The project had a budget of R200,000. Replacing fossil fuel-based energy supply with renewable energy alternatives. The eThekwini Energy Office developed a municipal map highlighting wind power generation potential. Many areas recorded speeds > 6.2 m.s-1, which is sufficient for wind farms. The study identified 10 sites for further investigation for the development of 20MW wind farms. The situation is also favourable for smaller scale wind power production to power homes and smaller industries. Start year 2010
Sector Other Emissions
Type Assessment/Research
Status Completed
File  
Shisa Solar Programme
Shisa Solar is a volume purchasing project for Solar Water Heater that is run by eThekwini Municipality’s Energy Office. It requires 10 people in a neighbourhood to be registered on the site, and then the Shisa team links the home owners to a pre-selected panel of service providers, who then provide quotations for the units. The Shisa Solar programme automatically includes a subsidy offered by Eskom. The programme was launched in early 2011 and specifically targets middle class and wealthier residents who can afford to purchase a solar water heater themselves. Start year 2010
Sector Buildings
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File  
Low Cost Solar Water Heater Programme
The programme was implemented in the following areas of eThekwini Municipality: Welbedacht West and East, Parkgate, Nazareth Island and Cato Crest. eThekwini Municipality did not allocate a budget to this project. The programme was fully funded by a combination of ESKOM subsidy for low pressure SWH units (90% of cost) and Carbon Credits through the Clean Development Mechanism (10% of costs). 8,304 one hundred litre capacity solar water heaters were installed on roofs of low cost houses within eThekwini Municipality from January to June 2011. The solar water heaters were provided to registered owners of low cost houses free of charge. Start year 2010
Sector Buildings
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File  
KwaZulu-Natal Sustainable Energy Forum (KSEF)
The main challenge that KSEF is trying to address was that there were a number of sustainable energy projects/role players in the city but that there was no interaction and engagement with one another. This is a climate change challenge since the sustainable industry is fairly new in developing countries like SA, so capacity needs to be built and linkages need to be created – KSEF does this. The purpose of the KZN Sustainable Energy Forum (KSEF) is to facilitate the development of the sustainable energy sector in KZN through information dissemination and networking opportunities. It is an initiative of the Durban Industry Climate Change Partnership Project and is jointly funded by the eThekwini Energy Office and United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO). Start year 2010
Sector  
Type Public Participation/Stakeholder engagement
Status In progress
File  
KwaDabeka Hostel Hot Water Pilot
eThekwini Municipality is responsible for managing numerous hostels that house approximately 100,000 people. Many hostels do not currently provide piped hot water for residents and instead residents use kettles and two plate stoves to heat water for bathing and washing. This results in large monthly electricity usage as many hostels. The purpose of this project was to pilot the installation of solar water heaters on one floor of one hostel building to determine the cost effectiveness of a renewable energy solution to this problem. Eighteen 2m2 solar arrays were installed at KwaDabeka Hostel in June 2011, supplying 100 litres of hot water per day to 25 flats. Start year 2011
Sector Buildings
Type Assessment/Research
Status Completed
File  
2010 eThekwini Municipal Greenhouse Gas Inventory
The purpose of this project is to catalogue the Green House Gas emissions of both eThekwini Municipality itself and the entire community within the eThekwini Municipal Area for the 2010 year. The organisational emissions of the eThekwini Municipality are being collected from a range of internal departments responsible for various emissions categories. The community emissions are being collected from a variety of external sources. In some cases accurate information is not available on certain emission categories; in these cases emissions will be estimated on best available current knowledge. Start year 2011
Sector Other Emissions
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status Completed
File  
Electric Bikes Pilot
This project seeks to address in part reducing carbon emissions associated with transport. Three electric bikes were purchased by eThekwini Municipality in 2010 in order to establish if electric bikes would be suitable modes of transport for any of the various transport requirements of the municipality. The three bikes were rotated amongst a variety of staff and departments in the municipality and reports and interviews completed with users to determine potential applications of electric bikes within the Municipality. Start year 2010
Sector Transport
Type Assessment/Research
Status Completed
File download
Energy Efficiency Demand Side Management (EEDSM)
The key climate change challenge is reducing carbon emissions associated with electricity use through implementing energy efficiency measures. The DORA Energy Efficiency Demand Side Management (EEDSM) fund from the National Treasury has been made available to municipalities (only) throughout the country over a three year period. In eThekwini during the financial year 2009-2010 the project focused almost exclusively on traffic light replacements. In the current 2010-2011 financial year the project is focussing on both traffic lights and office building lights. In the following financial year (2011-2012) it is anticipated that the bulk of the funding will be used for street lighting retrofits. Start year 2010
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File  
Durban Industry Climate Change Partnership Project (DICCPP)
The DICCPP seeks to address the lack of local capacity to respond to the challenge of climate change mitigation. The core focus of the DICCPP has been to provide support to the eThekwini Municipality’s Energy Office to promote implementation of the formally adopted municipal energy strategy. Some examples of DICCPP work included conceptualising the Shisa Solar Programme, managing the KwaZulu-Natal Sustainable Energy Forum (KSEF) and supporting the Implementation of the Mexico City Pact (Local Government Climate Change Pact). In addition, the DICCCPP has also conducted a number of climate change response workshops with various eThekwini economic clusters during 2010 and has participated in a local climate change partnership forged between the National Business Initiative, Durban Chamber of Commerce and Industry, UNIDO and eThekwini Municipality. Start year 2009
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File download
Domestic Orange Bag Recycling Programme
Recycling at source to reduce waste at landfills and to meet the obligations of the Polokwane Declaration. The National Environmental Management Waste Act (2008) and the Polokwane Declaration in 2000 prescribed a 50% reduction in waste to landfill by 2012, and zero waste to landfill by 2022. Hence, this innovative recycling project, where recycling at source eliminates contamination in the recycling process. Each household is provided with 15 orange bags every three months for recycling paper, cardboard, tetra-pak and plastic. Bags are collected on the same day as the domestic collection. Initiating a pilot project in 2007, 49 tons were collected in the first month. Currently over 1,200 tons are collected per month from 800,000 eThekwini Municipality homes. Collection is by local level contractors. The substantial benefits of this project include saved landfill airspace, job creation, local community upliftment, entrepreneurship development and residential awareness of reducing, reusing and recycling. Start year 2007
Sector Waste
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File  
Integrated Rapid Public Transport Network (IRPTN)
Duplication of transport services and a lack of integration result in the wasteful usage of scarce resources, increased pollution and increased carbon emissions. The development an extensive and inclusive public transport network plan which will ultimately allow residents easy access and mobility throughout the Municipal area. Start year 2011
Sector Transport
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File  
Towards a Sustainable Pit Latrine Management Strategy Through LaDePa
Budget: R70 million over 3 years. Pit latrine sludge is difficult to handle and contains pathogens and detritus, making disposal to landfill the only existing option. However, sludge also contains nutrients and phosphates, a critical but scarce terrestrial resource, which is lost through landfill disposal. The challenge is to remove (economically) the detritus and pathogens from the sludge and produce a workable material that could be recycled for agricultural use. LaDePa is a self-contained, containerised machine that separates the detritus from the sludge and then pasteurises and partially dries it to a workable state. The product is a valuable, low concentration fertiliser. It was a win, win, win situation for the clients, municipality and the PPP partner. The income generated partially offsets the cost of the pit latrine servicing and allows the process to be franchised to small and micro enterprises. Start year 2011
Sector Waste
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File  
COP17 Durban Responsible Accommodation Campaign
The budget for this project was R200 000. The project worked across the following sectors: Built Environment, Tourism, Eventing, Parks, Hospitality, Energy, Water, Waste and Biodiversity. The project seeks to achieve the following: Climate change awareness, resource and energy efficiency, Converting Durban’s tourism establishments to a climate smart event destinations. To be able to market itself as a green eventing destination locally and internationally, Durban will need to demonstrate its ability to host events in a climate responsible manner. In this regard responsible tourism approaches, formal responsible tourism certification systems and awareness of climate change and the COP17/CMP7 event will be actively promoted amongst the accommodation facilities that will service visitors to the COP17/CMP7 event. The Responsible Accommodation Campaign is being implemented as a pilot for COP17/CMP7 and it includes the adoption of the National Minimum Standards for Responsible Tourism and will provide the basis for further work post the COP. Start year 2011
Sector Buildings
Type Education/Awareness Raising
Status In progress
File  
Greening of Moses Mabhida Stadium
The project is cross-sector incl. Built Environment, Tourism, Eventing, Parks, Hospitality, Energy, Water, Waste and Biodiversity. The budget for this event is R 6.6 m to implement greening measures at the stadium and precinct. The climate challenge being addressed is the generation of substantial GHG emissions through the daily use of the stadium as well as climate change awareness, resource and energy efficiency. Greening the stadium will yield significant cost savings to the municipality, and provide the strategic advantage of being able to offer a “green” event hosting venue. This includes a 30% reduction in energy consumption through energy efficient architectural design, technologies and fittings, saving around R1 m per annum. There has also been a 74% reduction in possible water consumption, saving around R 0.7 m per annum. Carbon emissions from building the stadium are being offset through local reforestation and renewable energy interventions. Start year 2010
Sector Facilities
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
File  
Newlands Mashu Dewats - Evaluation for Waste Water Treatment and Reuse for Urban Horticulture
Construction of plant cost R 2.3 m, while testing and research cost R 1.15 m for the infrastructure to facilitate field trials and testing of water. • Water availability will be a key adaptation challenge in a climate change future. Similarly there is a mitigation need to avoid the use of petrochemical inputs in agriculture (reducing nitrous oxide emissions). The system was designed, constructed and operated in order to enable data collection, gain experience and promote the ability to replicate this for future applications of decentralised off-sewer wastewater treatment coupled to the promotion of urban horticulture. Start year 2010
Sector Waste
Type Assessment/Research
Status In progress
File  

Adaptation actions

Durban Adaptation Charter
From 2 to 5 December 2011, Durban hosted the Durban Local Government Convention where the Durban Adaptation Charter (DAC) was signed. The charter commits signatory cities to the implementation of ten key principles and raises awareness regarding the need for adaptation, especially in the Global South’s vulnerable communities. For more information visit the DAC Start year 2011
Sector  
Type Education/Awareness Raising
Status In progress
File  
Development of the combined Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy
The development of a combined, municipal wide adaptation and mitigation strategy is being planned, and is currently in the procurement process. This a multi-stakeholder collaboration, and identifying best practice and blue sky thinking, the municipality is seeking to develop a strategy that takes into account the concepts of planetary boundaries and Safe Operating Spaces Start year 2013
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File  
Durban Community Ecosystem Based Adaptation (CEBA)
The Durban Community Ecosystem Based Adaptation (CEBA) Programme is a green economy type project that combines a variety of habitat restoration and reforestation projects to improve ecosystem services for vulnerable communities and to create employment opportunities to alleviate poverty. The Durban CEBA was created as an offset for Durban’s carbon footprint associated with hosting COP17/ CMP 7. Start year 2011
Sector Terrestrial Ecosystems
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File  
Durban Botanic Gardens: A Climate Change and Biodiversity Awareness Centre of Excellence
This project addresses A general lack of awareness of climate change and an understanding of the value of biodiversity and healthy ecosystems in buffering communities against the impacts of climate change. A number of awareness initiatives have been developed at the Durban Botanic Gardens and are on display to all visitors. These informative and interactive displays address issues related to climate change, including the value of biodiversity, water conservation, food security and renewable energy. Projects include: The Renewable Energy Project (budget = R 300,000) where two large solar panel arrays have been installed and connected to the Visitors Complex power supply. The system tracks with the movement of the sun thereby increasing solar power generation by up to 30%. The Permaculture Centre and Food Garden Network (budget = R 250,000). This centre has been running permaculture programmes since 2008. A training and working garden functions as an interpretive space to explore the idea of a cultivated ecosystem and how this links to ideas around environmental resilience. Interpreting -Grasslands & -Biodiversity (Budgets R 50,000 & R 200,000). Loss of grassland systems has caused a major loss of biodiversity and an increase in carbon emissions. A new grassland garden features a range of local indigenous grassland species and interpretation boards to highlight the important environmental value of grassland ecosystems. Interpreting biodiversity and plant conservation issues is an educational priority at the Durban Botanic Gardens. Several exhibits in the Gardens focus on explaining the concept of biodiversity, local implications with ideas for inspiring responsible action. Start year 2011
Sector Terrestrial Ecosystems
Type Education/Awareness Raising
Status In progress
File  
Sliding Scale of Tariffs
Erratic water supply, as a consequence of predicted climate change, will potentially compound challenges currently faced whereby increasing demand for potable water exceeds supply capacity. A basic amount of water (9 kl) is provided free of charge to make water available to poor families in an economically sustainable way (i.e. via cross subsidisation). The subsequent introduction of a rising block, welfare maximising, tariff structure has led to a fall in average household consumption for two reasons: high volume consumers cut wastage and more poor families using lower amounts of water were connected to the network. As such this project represents an important demand management strategy for the city. Start year 2011
Sector Water Resources
Type Fiscal/Financial mechanism
Status In progress
File  
eThekwini Municipality Systematic Conservation Plan
The budget for this programme is R100,000. The aim is to improve the resilience of D’MOSS to climate change by ensuring that non-climate stressors such as habitat loss, loss of ecological viability and lack of connectivity are minimised, This is done through the use of Systematic Conservation Planning to identify priority biodiversity and ecosystem service areas, to optimize the representation and persistence of both. The project involves Incorporation of a wide range of specialist input into a comprehensive plan that represents biodiversity pattern and process, the costs and opportunities that threaten and/or support these, and the ecosystem goods and services that these provide. Start year 2011
Sector Terrestrial Ecosystems
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File  
Paradise Valley Reforestation Project
The budget details for the project are as follows: R 3.3 m in current financial year for invasive alien plant control and future CEBA contributions. The project is cross sectoral and involves the following sectors: Community, Natural Environment, Water, Energy. The key climate challenge being addressed is: Mitigation as a part of mega-event offset initiatives and adaptation to restore vital ecosystem goods and services. Another climate challenge is: Managing biodiversity and ensuring the sustainable supply of ecosystem services under a climate changed future. This is a COP 17/CMP 7 carbon offset project. Alien plant species are being removed and the area will be planted with locally indigenous tree species. This project will provide the catalyst for the development of a multi-stakeholder catchment-wide management programme focuses on linking community and ecosystems in ways that provide the basis for the development of a green economy that ensures poverty alleviation and the protection of biodiversity and the related ecosystem services. Start year 2011
Sector Terrestrial Ecosystems
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File  
Inanda Mountain Reforestation Project
The project has a budget of R4.1 million and involves the following sectors: Community, Natural Environment, Water, Energy. The key climate challenge being addressed is: Mitigation as a part of mega-event offset initiatives and adaptation to restore vital ecosystem goods and services. Uncontrolled alien invasive plant invasions and erosion are prevented by reforestation of the steep scarp slope following alien species removal. Start year 2011
Sector Terrestrial Ecosystems
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
File  
Mariannhill Landfill Conservancy
The budget for this project is Approx. R 550,000 per annum. To mitigate the potential negative processes surrounding an urban landfill site and to educate schools and encourage tourists to visit a natural area within the concrete jungle. This project involves the rehabilitation of the footprint and buffer zone of the landfill on a continual basis using local environmental assets and endemic indigenous flora and fauna. In this project, the value of the original soil profile was identified, and it was rescued and restored by the Prunit working group during the rehabilitation process. Start year 1997
Sector Terrestrial Ecosystems
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
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Luganda School Water Harvesting and Micro Agricultural Water Management Technology
The budget for this project is R350,000. Erratic and periodically heavy rainfall making smallholder agriculture and market gardening very difficult to sustain successfully. The project involves harvesting roof (clean) water from classroom roofs and surface (grey) water from school grounds during rainfall events for storage in two separate systems. This water is then used to farm with by members of the community in gardens established on school grounds downslope from the water storage structures. Water is accessed from a ring-main pipe leading off the water storage by means of turf valves, with each gardener equipped with a turf key connected to a hose-pipe for watering crops throughout the year. Start year 2010
Sector Food Security
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
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Sihlanzimvelo Project
The budget of the project is R 15 m per annum over 3 years. The sectors concerned are: Water, Catchment & Stormwater Management. Variable rainfall supply and an increased risk of flooding from more intense rainfall events, combined with degradation of catchments and river courses due to development are likely to increase erosion. This will impact on drainage systems and water supply. The Sihlanzimvelo Project is an integrated, systematic and sustainable approach to the maintenance of the 800 km of watercourses in eThekwini Municipality. The purpose is to ensure that all watercourses are restored to, and maintained at an appropriate environmental standard, thus safeguarding local communities. Start year 2011
Sector Water Resources
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Municipal Adaptation Plan for Climate Change
The key climate challenges are multiple adaptation challenges including Health, Water and Disaster Management Sectors due to potential climate change impacts. The Project employed a multi-criteria assessment approach to prioritise a list of adaptive responses across the eThekwini Municipality sectors. The final score for assessment was derived using a combination of merit (of the plan) and urgency. Start year 2009
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status Completed
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The Integrated Assessment Tool for Climate Change Adaptation
Budget: R 4,211,859 The key sectors involved include: Water, Coastal & Catchment Management, Health, Natural Environment & Agriculture. There is a need for the development of tools which facilitate the spatial display and interrogation of climate impacts across a range of sectors and assist local government in evaluating the impacts for long-term planning and budgeting. This project involved a detailed analysis of multiple sector impacts (using downscaled temperature and rainfall projections) and the development of a standalone software platform for the spatial display and interrogation of sector impact modules. Start year 2011
Sector  
Type Assessment/Research
Status In progress
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Municipal Adaptation Plans Cost-Benefit Analysis
Budget: R 1,449,643 Sector: Health, Water and Disaster Management sectors Multiple climate change challenges spanning the Health, Water and Disaster Management Sectors require the development of a structured and programmatic approach to adaptation planning. Limited funding and capacity requires that a means of prioritisation of adaptation actions is identified. The adaptation planning process employed a multi-criteria assessment approach to ranking a list of adaptive responses in each of the three sectors. The final score was derived using a combination of merit (of the plan) and urgency. To further prioritise interventions in terms of implementation, an innovative cost-benefit analysis is being undertaken whereby the number of people benefiting from an intervention is used to assess priority instead of the usual financial metrics. This is a more suitable approach within cities of the Global south, such as Durban where human need and adaptation are two sides of the same coin. Start year 2011
Sector  
Type Assessment/Research
Status In progress
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Non-User Conservation Servitudes (NUCS)
Securing conservation worthy land by means other than land acquisition from landowners. NUCS registration is completed in favour of eThekwini Municipality but the land remains in private ownership and management. eThekwini municipality provides rates relief. Start year 2011
Sector Terrestrial Ecosystems
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Sea level rise assessment
The budget for this project was R500,000. Sea level rise resulting from climate change is expected to affect coastlines around the world. Given the key role that Durban’s coastline plays in the city’s economy there is an urgent need to better understand local level impacts. A number of sea level rise scenarios (30, 60 and 100 cm) were developed using both downscaled global climate and semi-empirical models. These were used with wave run-up and shoreline regression models to determine possible future shoreline positions. Along portions of the coast the slip failure zones associated with steep dune systems were also mapped. Start year 2009
Sector Coastal zones/Marine Ecosystems
Type Assessment/Research
Status Completed
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Low Carbon Durban Research Project
The total budget for the project was R2.1 million. The climate challenge addressed was to develop a strategic level understanding of the key interventions required to enable the municipality to pursue a low carbon development pathway. The Low Carbon Durban Research Project utilized the expertise of prominent scientists from the Academy of Science of South Africa and other international scientists to develop a Low Carbon Durban Report to assist Durban’s transition to a low carbon city. Start year 2010
Sector  
Type Assessment/Research
Status Completed
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Green Roof Pilot Project
Urban heat island effect and run-off from hardened urban areas are likely to increase under local climate change scenarios. Loss of natural areas in the city has resulted in a loss of biodiversity. The green roof project commenced in 2008 and is ongoing. The roof is vegetated with locally indigenous species to attract biodiversity. The benefits of the roof are being monitored and this knowledge is being used to promote the usage of green roof technologies throughout the eThekwini CBD. Start year 2008
Sector Terrestrial Ecosystems
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
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Durban Climate Change Partnership (DCCP)
Budget: approx. R800,000. Climate change is likely to affect all sectors of society and will require a collective effort to manage mitigation and adaptation interventions. The DCCP unites diverse sectors in addressing the climate change challenge. These sectors include: business/industry, government, civil society, academia, people with disabilities, the youth, etc. Seed funding was provided by eThekwini Municipality to facilitate the formation of this body, which will become independently funded and administered. Start year 2011
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Community Adaptation Plans (CAPs)
The budget for this programme is R2.5 million. Indigent communities relying heavily upon ecosystem goods and services are most vulnerable to climate change. The CAP project has three sub-projects: - A social vulnerability and adaptation planning study, conducted in Amaoti, Ntuzuma and Ntshongweni, aimed to understand how climate change impacts exacerbate daily challenges and risks faced by these vulnerable communities. - An assessment of climate change impacts upon maize in Ntuzuma and Ntshongweni including yields and social acceptability of alternative crops. - Water harvesting and water-wise landscaping and a community garden were initiated at a school in Luganda. Start year 2011
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status Completed
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Buffelsdraai Landfill Site Community Reforestation Project
The project involved the following sectors: Community, Natural Environment, Water, Energy and had a budget of R 13,163,689. The climate challenge that the project addresses is mitigation as a part of mega-event offset initiatives and adaptation to restore vital ecosystem goods and services. This project was initiated in 2008 by the city\'s Environmental Planning and Climate Protection Department (EPCPD) as part of its “Greening Durban 2010 Programme” to offset the municipality’s 2010 FIFA World Cup™ carbon footprint (307 000 t). The reforestation occurs within the buffer zone of the Buffelsdraai Landfill site (will result in the reforestation of ~ 521 ha), creating employment and vocational training opportunities. Start year 2008
Sector Terrestrial Ecosystems
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
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Durban Water Recycling
Please note that the project is financed by private financing. A potable water shortage that is potentially exacerbated by climate change impacts. Treating domestic wastewater back to near potable standard for recycling back to industry, thereby reducing demand for potable water. The available water can then be used to better service the residents and support further development in the city. This was the first PPP in the water sector in South Africa and is a unique recycling intervention. Start year 2011
Sector Water Resources
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Working on Fire
The total budget for this project is R5 million. The sector is the natural environment. The spread of invasive alien plants and the loss of critically endangered natural grassland habitat in eThekwini Municipality, due to land transformation and fragmentation, is likely to be exacerbated by climate change due to increased photosynthetic rates of C3 plants (e.g. trees), compared with C4 plants (e.g. grasses), resulting in the conversion of grassland into woodland habitats. Two roving teams implement invasive alien plant control and fire management, primarily in grassland areas not receiving other management. Periodic burning mimics pre-development conditions which promotes grassland health. Start year 2011
Sector Terrestrial Ecosystems
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status Looking for Funding
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Working for Ecosystems
The budget for this programme is R2.5. The spread of invasive alien species (IAS) is degrading natural habitats in both urban and rural environments with the consequent loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. This situation is likely to be exacerbated by climate change. This is a community based environmental management and poverty alleviation programme currently operating in four municipal wards. The focus is on invasive alien plant control using an expanded public works model which creates job opportunities for the poor and unemployed. This type of approach is being utilised in the Durban CEBA initiative. Start year 2011
Sector Terrestrial Ecosystems
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status Looking for Funding
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Invasive Alien Plant (IAP) Control Programme
The budget for this program is R9 million. Invasive alien species (IAS) are recognized as a global threat to ecosystem health and economic resources. This threat may be exacerbated under future climate change scenarios and other drivers of global environmental change. The eThekwini Municipality IAS Framework Strategy and Action Plan outlines the goals and means of delivery required to ensure coordination and prioritisation regarding the control and management of IAS in the city. Start year 2011
Sector Terrestrial Ecosystems
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Green Guideline Series
The budget for this project is R516,000. The project is cross-sectoral incl. Built Environment, Tourism, Eventing, Parks, Hospitality, Energy, Water, Waste and Biodiversity. The key climate challenges and problems being addressed are Climate change awareness, resource and energy efficiency, Converting Durban to a climate smart event destination. The Green Guideline series provides practical tools to guide individuals, businesses, and institutions in living and working more sustainably in Durban. They are concise, practical and focused documents providing clear information about choosing appropriate “green interventions.” The series includes Energy Efficiency, Water Conservation, Sustainable Waste Management, Green Landscaping, Green Roof and Green Eventing. Start year 2010
Sector  
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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Durban Green Corridor
The budget for this project is R4.5 million including R3 million from additional partners. The loss of biodiversity and the degradation of ecosystems and water quality will mean the loss of critical ecosystem goods and services. This will be exacerbated by climate change impacts such as flooding causing increased erosion. To rehabilitate and manage the open spaces of the uMngeni River catchment and to promote adventure sports, nature-based recreation and eco-tourism in a corridor linking the Drakensberg Mountains to Durban, thus forming the basis in the development of a greener economy. Four development zones are located at Isithumba in the Valley of 1000 Hills, Inanda dam, the uMngeni Estuary Green Hub (a 2010 World CupTM initiated project) and an international sister city climate change partnership in the uMhlangane River catchment. The main activities are invasive alien plant and pollution control, catchment and wetland rehabilitation, indigenous tree planting, environmental education, youth development through sports and the promotion of outdoor sports. The rehabilitation of ecosystems helps restores the goods and services they provide and the employment reduces community risk of climate change impacts. Start year 2011
Sector Terrestrial Ecosystems
Type Technical/Infrastructure investment
Status In progress
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Durban Metropolitan Open Space (D’MOSS): Planning and Implementation
The budget: R 2 m annual capital budget for land acquisition This will increase to R11million in 2013/14. The key sector is the natural environment. The key climate challenge is: Ensuring that the climate change impacts on the globally significant biodiversity and related ecosystem services protected by the system are minimised. The aim of D’MOSS (75 000 ha) is to protect the municipality’s biodiversity resources and the ecosystem services that these supply. A recent development is that design of the system has been improved using systematic conservation planning techniques. The key challenge lies in securing and managing the system in a manner which is affordable and sustainable. Currently 89.1 % of D’MOSS is neither protected nor managed, 8.4 % is protected and managed whilst 2.5 % is protected but not managed. Start year 1990
Sector Terrestrial Ecosystems
Type Policy/Strategies/Action Plans
Status In progress
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